PEST advocates a more egalitarian and participative two-method exchange in the technique of science making and expertise adoption that blurs the boundaries between experts, the lay public and coverage-makers (Scheufele, 2014).
DHS Science and Know-how Directorate
In response to the S&T website, Because the research and development (R&D) arm of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Science and Know-how Directorate (S&T) focuses on providing the instruments, technologies, and information products the nation’s Homeland Security Enterprise needs at the moment and tomorrow. Meaning S&T continuously works to bridge trade and end-user communities around the nation. S&T’s R&D focus areas cowl DHS’s core mission areas and use our community of industry, nationwide laboratory and other partners search solutions for capability gaps and define topics for future research. Established by Congress in 2003, S&T strives to enable efficient, efficient, and safe operations across all homeland safety missions by applying scientific, engineering, analytic, and modern approaches to ship timely options and support departmental acquisitionsâ€ (DHS, 2019a,b,c,d,e).
S&T Directorate is the primary R&D office within DHS. Since its inception in 2003, S&T has been led by an Under Secretary of Homeland Security. As of November 19, 2019, the S&T web site notes that William N. Bryan assumed the function of Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Beneath Secretary for Science and Expertise (DHS) on May 30, 2017â€ (DHS, 2019a,b,c,d,e). See Mr. Bryan’s official DHS biography beneath.
William N. Bryan
William N. Bryan assumed the role of Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Underneath Secretary for Science and Know-how (DHS) on Could 30, 2017. Because the S&T advisor to the DHS Secretary, Mr. Bryan leads the analysis, development, innovation, and testing and analysis actions in help of DHS operational elements and first responders throughout the nation. Previous to becoming a member of S&T, Mr. Bryan was the President of ValueBridge International’s Power Group in Reston, Virginia.
An Army veteran with 17Â years of active navy service and 3Â years within the Virginia Nationwide Guard, Mr. Bryan brings a wealth of experience gained from multiple leadership roles in the US Department of Power (DOE) and Department of Defense (DoD).
Mr. Bryan served 8Â years with DOE, most not too long ago as a Senior Advisor within the Workplace of International Affairs. There, he responded to pressing world energy challenges including energy security, market volatility, and hazard/risk impacts. Together with his major deal with Ukraine, he led several worldwide delegations to help Ukraine overcome power challenges, move towards energy independence, and mitigate impacts from cyber occasions.
A former Deputy Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Security and Vitality Restoration in DOE’s Workplace of Electricity Supply and Energy Reliability, Mr. Bryan worked with the Nationwide Security Council, other US government companies, personal industry, and international companions to reinforce the safety and resilience of the nation’s critical energy infrastructure. He also facilitated the reconstruction and recovery of broken or disrupted power methods from a wide range of threats and hazards.
Previous to his DOE actions, he served for 5Â years as the Director for Important Infrastructure Protection (CIP) in DoD’s Office of the Beneath Secretary of Defense for Policy, the place he led all crucial infrastructure and Defense Industrial Base (DIB)-related activities. He also suggested DoD leadership on the relevance of present CIP and DIB capabilities, methodologies, and technologies in support of military and civil homeland defense efforts deemed important to national safety.
Mr. Bryan holds a Master of Science in strategic intelligence from the Joint Military Intelligence College in Washington, DC. He additionally graduated Summa Cum Laude with a Bachelor of Science in logistics systems administration from Colorado Technical College in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
In October 2018, S&T was reorganized for the third time since its creation in 2003. This reorganization is mirrored in the S&T organizational chart dated Could 7, 2019, offered in Fig. 12.1.
Figure 12.1. Science and Expertise Directorate organizational chart.
News release: DHS S&T reveals new enterprise model and organizational construction
Release date: October 1, 2018
WASHINGTONâ€”The DHS S&T Directorate today begins a brand new method to its R&D mission with a brand new organizational structure that will enhance its skill to extra rapidly transition know-how capabilities into operations and allow it to rapidly respond to rising threats.
We now not have the luxurious of time to do traditional R&D, so we should change if we are to get ahead of threats cycles and keep pace with speedy innovation,â€ said William N. Bryan, the Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Beneath Secretary for Science and Know-how. We are improving our R&D enterprise practices to make it easier for industry, together with the beginning-up group, to work with us.â€
The revitalized S&T structure enhances the give attention to the needs of the DHS operational elements and Homeland Security operators throughout all levels of government. S&T works throughout components and communities to be taught their wants and challenges and includes its prospects, companions, and homeland security stakeholders in efforts to seek out and share solutions for making the nation safer.
The new structure enables the agency to be more agile and responsive, prepared to move rapidly to reply to changes within the risk environment, and to make use of existing technologies that can be adapted and leveraged to expedite the development of vital capabilities.
One other vital element of the new structure is the ability to more rapidly switch capabilities to the place they’re most needed, working closely with S&T’s part partners and trade to ship efficient options.
We are participating our DHS acquisition colleagues earlier in the R&D course of to help pave the way for a profitable transition of capabilities to our clients in addition to to the homeland security market,â€ stated Mr. Bryan. Our emphasis is on readability, transparency, and staying open to new ideas. Scientific and engineering excellence is on the core of every thing we do.â€
On the core of the revitalization is the three-pronged working model blueprint that focuses first on understanding prospects’ needs by means of strategic and transparent engagement, leveraging S&T’s expertise in operational evaluation and methods engineering to help prospects refine their needs. Subsequent, S&T applies a deliberate, staff-based mostly strategy that leverages S&T’s full range of capabilities, beginning with looking for out ready-made or simply adaptable options that may be delivered rapidly and value-effectively. And finally, environment friendly, transparent and accountable execution when an answer must be tailored or developed.
The Workplace of Enterprise Services will embody all of S&T’s support capabilities reminiscent of administration, communications, finance and finances, and the chief info workplace.
The revitalization effort involved more than ninety S&T staff who analyzed business practices and operational processes and engineered the brand new construction with input from throughout your entire Directorate.
Conferences, Symposia, and Seminars
13th IUFoST World Congress of Food Science and Know-how, Nantes, France, September 2006, that includes 10 chapters on meals security in the resultant guide entitled Global Issues in Food Science and Expertise (Barbosa-Canovas et al., 2009).
Science and technology (S&T) is the basis of informed determination-making in catastrophe threat discount (DRR). Position of S&T has got enhanced consideration in the Sendai Framework for Catastrophe Danger Discount (SFDRR) and there was prominent world and several other regional initiatives to enhance multistakeholder partnership in implementing science-based mostly determination-making. In Asia, an advisory group is fashioned, adopted by benchmarking the status of S&T software, a regional conference and an endeavor to bring S&T in the national planning course of to implement SFDRR. To continue this, multistakeholder partnership is required for science know-how community must deal with the new function of S&T, other than the technological innovation solely. Thus success of S&T in implementing SFDRR will depend on (1) a proactive role in collaboration with related government department and help science-primarily based resolution-making, (2) selling innovation through subject wants and priorities, and (3) codesigning options with completely different stakeholders.
Relationship of STS to Historical past, Philosophy of Science, and History of Expertise
The STS field is positioned alongside the historical past and philosophy of science, and the historical past of expertise. Students with disciplinary properties in history or philosophy might also establish as STS scholars, and people inside STS departments or interdisciplinary applications may identify as historians, philosophers, or each. Two main divisions between STS and the history and philosophy of science exist. The first surrounds the use of socialâ€ in STS. Historically, historians and philosophers of science have been less engaged in investigating the connection between science and society in the broad phrases the STS students often use. This distinction, Hess (1997) argues, is waning because of the growing dialogue amongst social scientists, historians, and philosophers. Second, STS scholars often have interaction the public as actors and contributors of their investigations of science and public coverage. Some scholars, particularly throughout the Public Understandingâ€ custom, work on fashions of participatory science coverage and democracy. Scholars comparable to Benjamin (2013), Epstein (1996), Dumit (2012), Guston (2000), Hilgartner (2000), Bozeman and Sarewitz (2011) every have interaction the general public as actors in the politics of science and technology.
18.4.three AIST’s Analysis on Volcanology
AIST developed a way up to now the young volcanic rocks (e.g., Ishizuka et al., 2003) and has utilized it to numerous volcanoes. These results are indispensable for manufacturing of geological maps and improve the accuracy of the geological maps and systematic compile of the eruption data.
AIST observes the gases from lively volcanoes to monitor volcanic gas discharge activity and analyze the degassing means of magma and temporal changes in hydrothermal techniques. As the traditional means are analyzing volcanic gases sampled straight from fumarole, targets of the research have been restricted to the realm of active fumarole. Latest development of equipment and method for statement enabled to research gas parts within volcanic plume, and AIST began analyses of the gases from numerous volcanoes (Shinohara, 2013).
Science and expertise is vital for catastrophe danger discount, serving as the idea for selling a multihazard strategy and inclusive danger-knowledgeable choice-making. Constructing catastrophe resilience is going to be more and more challenging within the altering local weather. Excessive climate events linked to precipitation and high temperatures are anticipated to trigger fast- and sluggish-onset occasions of varied sorts and magnitudes of influence across Asia. Such events will have an rising impression on human well being, food and water safety, livelihoods, poverty and create new vulnerabilities.
There are a number of stipulations to make sure that science and expertise is effectively channeled to construct catastrophe resilience. Operational definitions of ideas similar to vulnerability, publicity, and susceptibility which can be carefully linked to catastrophe threat and hazards might be useful to allow for a extra nuanced application when used in an space-based mostly context as well as hyperlink catastrophe danger discount and climate change adaptation on the native degree. The size of science info that is primarily based on pure boundaries must match choice-making scale at the local stage and scientific inputs have to be synchronized to native administrative processes. The presence of an institutionalized mechanism for mainstreaming of science and know-how and transmitting it to nationwide and subnational ranges would also help danger-informed determination-making. The communication, transfer, and development of catastrophe threat information is best when it’s delicate to context, diversity of choice varieties, choice processes, and constituencies. In this respect, it’s critical to marshal science and expertise that’s socially related on the native level.
eleven.2.1 Common perspective of the position of S&T
S&T consists of the schools, research institutes, assume tanks, and so on, and they play roles in three phases of knowledge administration: information manufacturing, knowledge mediation, and information utilization (Fazekas and Burns, 2012). Consequently, their essential role is to supply the brand new information throughout the research and Kogan (2007) described that there were three fashions in information manufacturing; (1) the autonomous mannequin the place researchers can determine all main features of scientific inquiry, (2) the partnership model where lecturers and funders outline the weather and bounds of the analysis collectively, and (3) the managed mannequin where the vital traits of the research mission are outlined by the funder, either public or non-public.â€ New data is produced beneath those modes, and the second section of information management is mediation, which is the method of creating connection between the produced data by S&T, and issues to be solved within the society. Thus, the partnership of S&T with those who can apply the produced knowledge for society reminiscent of coverage-makers and practitioners is a vital aspect her explanation of mediation. Third phase of information administration is the knowledge utilization, which is the method of applying information to solve the problems within the science-primarily based method. One instance is the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 enacted in the United States, which promotes the program development and educating method on the scientifically primarily based research and evaluations of education reform strategies and innovationsâ€ (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 2001). This Act was established due to the weak spot in information utilization by school training sectors as a result of weak capacity to search out, share, perceive and apply researchâ€ (Levin et al., 2009), hence the programs to incorporate research into practices are aimed to be strengthened. Along with the teaching in schooling, S&T contributes to the improved academic facilities. Utility of science-primarily based information into amenities results in select the much less dangerous building supplies for human being, properly-considered lighting design, environmentally friendly ventilation and air-conditioned techniques, and safe faculty buildings and its location when it comes to natural disasters.
In addition to knowledge production, mediation and utilization, S&T also play a task to verify the local data. Mainly the native knowledge is generated at sure group and transmitted from technology to technology. Thus, it is widely shared among sure group of individuals and its effectiveness is believed by them, whereas it’s carried out with out scientific proof. Due to this fact, the S&T collects and verifies the native data, and verified knowledge might be utilized in the discipline of science, policy, and education. These kinds of initiatives are already noticed within the theme of climate change adaptation, natural DRR, and sustainable development. Thus, the role of S&T is just not only to produce the brand new data, but in addition to mediate, apply, and confirm the information to solve the problems in the society.
Adhesion science and expertise has developed since our earliest ancestors struggled to enhance their situations. The battle continues, and as with all trendy technologies it’s apparent that adhesion has advanced right into a highly multi- and interdisciplinary activity. Three disciplines outline the muse of adhesion science and expertise: chemistry, materials science, and mechanics of supplies. It so occurs that wooden is a peculiar materials with respect to each of those disciplines. The next discussion of wooden adhesion touches upon the chemical and material sciences and is intended to direct the reader to the extra complete remedies found in the recommendations for further reading. Afterwards, a number of the more frequent wood adhesives are reviewed briefly.
7.4 Interaction of health and S&T
Well being is often used as an indicator of catastrophe resilience and preparedness. When a disaster strikes, well being outcomes are tracked, measured, and in comparison with goal achievements. Science helps generate this evidence of discount of catastrophe impacts on well being. Expertise can be used to enhance the method of gathering information, in addition to assist the reduction of disaster impression on health. In the subject of city catastrophe risk, technology can be utilized to develop tools for better measurements of health indicators.
7.4.1 Position of S&T in altering threat notion and disaster preparedness
S&T can help the improvement of disaster risk perception and preparedness, on the individual, household, and community levels. For instance, social media is a key technological communication tool that is altering the way in which individuals can work together in occasions of disasters. Predisaster social media has been discovered to be useful for providing and receiving disaster preparedness info, providing and receiving catastrophe warnings, and signaling and detecting the catastrophe (Houston et al., 2015). Via social media, even users who should not deliberately searching for catastrophe-related data may have the opportunity to acquire the data from within their social community (Houston et al., 2015). Preparedness can also be improved when people use tools to verify real-time data, about their immediate environment or the well being care system of their group (Merchant et al., 2011). At the individual stage, entry to expertise can affect how disaster-related well being prevention measures must be targeted, as highlighted in Field 7.2. At the household degree, the mapping of the evacuation route and sharing of data via smartphones can assist the households’ preparation for disasters. On the community level, technology can be utilized to provide subtle simulations of catastrophe scenarios.
Use of smartphone for weather data to realize better prevention.
With the rising use of smartphones globally, this expertise could be harnessed to enhance people’s threat perceptions and data associated to well being hazards. In Hong Kong, despite being a subtropical metropolis, town’s winter chilly waves have been found to lead to increased morbidity and mortality. A examine (Chan et al., 2017) was conducted inside 1 week after a chilly wave warning in late January 2016, inclusive of the coldest day since 1957, to evaluate the information channels used by the inhabitants to receive climate information. By way of a telephone survey, 1017 individuals have been asked about their possession of a smartphone and their current and most popular channels of receiving climate and disaster warning related data. Fig. 7.1 demonstrates the variation by district. The research discovered that a hundred% of these aged 15-34 were using smartphones for accessing data. Though older-aged respondents had been less likely to use smartphones for associated information search, 55% of those aged sixty five+ additionally had a smartphone.
The comparability between present and preferred channels for receiving weather information among study respondents can be seen in Fig. 7.2. Television (50.1%) was reported to be the most frequent channel for weather data access amongst users of all age teams. Smartphone App was reported to rank as second (31.9%) and, of note, sixteen.5% of the research respondents indicated a desire for switching from their current type of info looking for channel (e.g. TV, radio, Web, web site) to the use of smartphone app for gathering weather info despite not being a present app person throughout the survey interview. Subgroup analysis by age confirmed seventy four.9% of the aged (these aged sixty five+) acquired climate info by TELEVISION, in contrast with 38.four% of those aged 15-34. Solely 6.three% of the aged acquired weather info by the smartphone app, compared with 46.four% of these aged 15-34. This displays that well being and disaster danger communication must be stratified by age to deal with information seeking patterns of different age groups.
2 Further steps of S&T in health and disasters
Though S&T have contributed to the field of catastrophe threat reduction considerably, catastrophe-related S&T faces challenges to be utilized to the health sector. Under are the additional steps that S&T disaster researchers and practitioners are encouraged to take:
Translating science into sensible use to follow health
The sector of disaster science has grown and developed over the past a long time. Many instruments have been developed and used to evaluate hazard and vulnerability in disaster risk discount, which are geared toward the occurrence of the event and inclined to economic reductionism, counting on modeling, GPS, distant sensing, etc. (Gaillard and Mercer, 2013). Nevertheless, less has been achieved relating to how these strategies is perhaps linked to human well being outcomes. Although many of the bodily science tools are relevant for the understanding and estimation of the physical affect of disasters, there is a normal lack of sensible translation and switch of analysis findings to assist the constructing of public well being interventions (reminiscent of catastrophe warning effectiveness), as well as the heightening and sensitivity of basic disaster health risk perceptions, with the exception of infectious diseases outbreak management.
Capability building in scientific and well being danger management within the local context
Every neighborhood has its unique context and different units of catastrophe dangers that are associated with its urban planning, population danger perceptions, and well being system resilience. With a purpose to be related and appropriate to the context, communities must have their own analysis capacities and relevant scientific findings to assess local dangers to assist the group’s danger reduction. For example, if a warning system mannequin was constructed based on the cold weather risks in a temperate local weather, it’s difficult to be tailored to a tropical climate because the risks are different. Dekens (2007) identifies the usefulness of native knowledge in disaster preparedness, which incorporates the flexibility to be told of the native environmental variability and specificities, local hazard perceptions, context-pushed assessments of risk tradeoffs, vulnerable groups, power relations in the neighborhood, and adjustments in vulnerability over time. By constructing native scientific capacity, analysis can incorporate local data to deal with the community’s distinctive set of risks. Native capability building might be advanced through integrating disaster science into the schooling curricula and empowering analysis scientists through alternatives of innovation and funding.
Advocating with scientific proof in health
Science should be employed to construct the evidence base to inform and persuade leaders and policymakers on disaster well being points. Research should go beyond the paper and be used in government insurance policies and by nongovernmental organizations to be carried out in the community. Examples of this may be seen within the disasters of 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, where, scientists used tools and computational models to model advanced programs and predict situation outcomes, so that call-makers might use the models to estimate consequences and make knowledgeable response plans (Lant and Lurie, 2013).